The reason printed circuit boards (PCBs) require a surface finish rather than being left as simply bare copper is because while copper is an excellent conductor, leaving it exposed will cause it to oxidize and deteriorate over time. The increased exposure will cause the PCB to fail much sooner than expected.
EMI (electromagnetic interference) and RFI (radio-frequency interference) are disturbances generated by external sources that impact a cable assembly by degrading the assembly's performance or completely preventing it from functioning. These disturbances can cause problems ranging from an increase in error rates of the signal being transmitted through the assembly to total loss of any electronically readable signal.
For many narrow to wide bandwidth band pass applications, pure band pass filters (also bandpass filters or BPF) are a good fit, - forming rejection bands below and above the passband in a single filter. Coupled line, combline, and interdigital are three pure band pass filter types. Pure filters can be the most efficient solutions for loss and physical footprint where the specs mandate their usage. For ultra-wideband applications, pure solutions may require too many poles making physical size too large and insertion loss too high for many systems.
When designing and manufacturing passive broadband high frequency cascaded LC filters (inductor and capacitor), a lot of undesirable component interactions can occur if not properly managed. The goal is to minimize the difference between an RF microwave filter design constructed with ideal components and one using commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) and custom manufactured components.
Over the last 25 years, the evolution of touch screen technologies has brought sweeping changes to how society uses human-machine interface (HMI) products. Originally touch screens were small, monochrome, and required a stylus and single touchpoint to operate.
Rigid-flex printed circuit boards are unique in terms of integrated construction of both rigid and flex circuit technologies. Unique construction comes with unique requirements that should be reviewed and implemented during the rigid-flex PCB Gerber layout phase of the design process.
Flex and rigid-flex PCB constructions have many variations that allow for a wide range of applications and solutions. A significant difference to rigid PCB constructions is that uneven layer counts are allowed and frequently used. The primary reasons being reduced flex thickness, improved flexibility and reduced part cost.
Understanding the environment which your assembly will be used in may determine whether or not your application will require shielded cables. Applications where cable assemblies are utilized are often electrically noisy, industrial environments, where factories can create interference within cables. If your cables at at risk of electrical noise interference, shielded cables can greatly improve the performance of your equipment.
Essential to any flex or rigid-flex printed circuit board (PCB) contruction is validation that your design will meet your mechanical bend requirements. Minimum flex bend radius requirements were put in place so your design won't exceed the physical capabilities of copper circuitry, which would result in failed parts, long term reliability concerns, and several giant headaches.
Designers and manufacturers of silicone rubber keypads understand they are used for a wide range of industries and applications while needing to withstand heavy usage. Keypads are used extensively in both consumer and industrial electronic products as a low cost and reliable switching solution. In specific applications rubber keypads may be used in harsh outdoor environments that must withstand hundreds of actuations on a daily basis.